Interesting recent research in Italy on how neonicotinoids let viruses thrive in hives;
"Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidaclopri"
- Crop and domestic pesticides
- Feeding bees sugar/corn syrup
- Beekeeper use of bio-cides in hives and manipulations
- Mono crop diet
We used to blame deformed wing virus just on Varroa. This looks way too simple now, but Varroa has been a useful fall guy for the "crop protection" industry. In truth, Varroa has been exposing the problem.